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Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How to buy Bitcoin and Deposit on Roobet Full Tutorial

Hello!
In this thread I will do my very best to explain how to purchase Bitcoin safely and deposit it onto Roobet.com !
If anything is too confusing or you need further instructions feel free to message a mod for help!Be very aware of other users offering to sell you bitcoin or purchase on your behalf.If you are new to Bitcoin in general I strongly recommend watching this quick video on the basics of bitcoin safety https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2z2xggmeW1AAfter you have watched that or you already understand bitcoin skip to down below!
Buying Bitcoin
Step 1 Chosing an exchange
Ok so you want to buy bitcoin to play on roobet? No problem! Bitcoin is super easy to use once you understand it! The first thing you need to do is pick an exchange to purchase from. I would recommend coinbase as it is a very large and trusted exchange. If coinbase does not work in your region then I would recommend Binance The last option if buying online doesn't work would be a local Bitcoin ATM use google to find one close to you.

Step 2 Signing up - coinbase Sign up using https://www.coinbase.com/join/carava_zo to get a bonus 10$ btc on your first purchase Once you create an account you will be prompt to verify both a Email & Phone Number *Sometimes a photo id is required* *(It is recommend to add one as it will improve account security and increase your buying limit)* Follow the on screen prompts until you get to Add Payment Method
Add your method of payment
Once you link a Bank/Credit Card you will now be in the main page
https://preview.redd.it/a58hftutv8d51.png?width=1892&format=png&auto=webp&s=9ce87ba198fdcaad10a2da4725c1030fca4d1741
  1. Takes you to the main page
  2. Takes you to the main page
  3. Your Portfolio view your holdings here
  4. Check current market prices
  5. Buy sell and send bitcoin/Crypto
Click on Trade (5) SOMETIMES AN ID IS REQUIRED It is recommended to do this step even if you do not get the prompt as it will increase account security and increase your buying limit.
Verify your Id by following the steps
Once you have a verified account you will be able to purchase Bitcoin for life! YAAAY :) Click on Trade (5) once again and now you will see this pop up
https://preview.redd.it/absss1xrx8d51.png?width=373&format=png&auto=webp&s=93308c636588421ead42f557cc5c51beeea4c431
GO SLOW FROM THIS POINT ON THERE IS NO RUSH Select the coin you would like to purchase Select the payment method you have added in the previous step Ensure that One Time Purchase is selected so it does not recur automatically
Confirmation Window
This is the last chance to cancel or change anything before you purchase. In this example I am making a purchase of $100 Cad worth of BTC Take not of Coinbase fees so you do not get confused once the BTC arrives
Complete
Your BTC will be available instantly! that is the beauty of setting up a verified coinbase account! Step 1 is complete we have now successfully purchased our first amount bitcoin!
Step2 Sending Bitcoin Now we will go back to the home page by click ether the logo (1) or the home button (2) From the main page we will click on portfolio (3)
https://preview.redd.it/dzvva71mz8d51.png?width=1892&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f2d1cd9052b7751afd22a97c6a52fa4fd669a23

Once we are in the Portfolio screen scroll down until you see Your Assets
This will display all your holdings
Now click on Bitcoin and it will bring you to your bitcoin wallet on the right hand side you will see a Send and Receive Tab
ALWAYS TRIPLE CHECK ADDRESSES
Ok we are going to Pause Coinbase here and head on over to our Roobet AccountIf you do not have a Roobet Account Follow the guide here ( https://www.reddit.com/Roobet/comments/hydyap/how_to_create_a_roobet_account/ )
On the roobet home page you want to click on Deposit
https://preview.redd.it/6x49blj939d51.png?width=1409&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6acb178137f90d874297f067b83e8abb143b035
Once you do that the Wallet Window will pop up
IF you have the coinbase app you can Scan the QR code to deposit (not the one in the screenshot unless you want to deposit into my wallet!)
  1. Copy the Bitcoin Address (Your bitcoin address not the one in the screenshot)
  2. Head back to coinbase
  3. You should still have the Sent/Receive tab open if not open it back up
  4. Put in the amount of BTC you wish to send
  5. I like to add a note to keep my purchases organized this is optional
  6. PASTE THE ROOBET DEPOSIT ADDRESS WE COPIED FROM STEP 1
  7. DOUBLE TRIPLE QUADRUPLE CHECK THE ADDRESS IS CORRECT YOU ONLY GET 1 SHOT AT THIS GO SLOW
  8. If everything looks good click send
TRIPLE CHECK BEFORE CLICKING SEND
You will be given a confirmation screen again take note of the fees It is easy to get confused especially with currency conversion its always best to look at the BTC amount not the $ amount. (pro tip)
Last chance to check everything
Once you confirmed everything click send and the BTC is on its way! Go back to roobet and keep an eye on your notifications. Thanks to Roobet Instant funding you only need 1 confirmation before your funds are ready to go!
https://preview.redd.it/14x2wwmo59d51.png?width=524&format=png&auto=webp&s=d40212fd1b67555fecb6e7f69c78d47c1abe569f

Thats it!!!!You have successfully purchased and added BTC to your roobet account! Things to note Bitcoin is risky be safe take time to learn it Gambling is risky... Crpto is risky this website combines both please take the appropriate steps to ensure not only your financial safety but also your metal health Play Smart Play Safe
Thank you for reading!if this helped you at all I would love it if you used my links above when signing up This was my first reddit guide I apologize if it is messy/confusing I will work on the formatting any Feedback is appreciated
-Dom
submitted by dom555 to Roobet [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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How to Cold Store Your Cryptocurrency for Safekeeping

According to CipherTrace (which specializes in litigation tools and services for cryptographic markets), between 2018 and 2019, the amount of theft from cryptographic wallets exceeds $2 billion. Thefts and break-ins are caused by a variety of reasons: simple incompetence in cryptographic storage, as well as by companies that provide storage services. It is not unusual for holders of crypto currency to lose access to their wallets by themselves, one of the last known cases occurred in Ireland: ,57 million dollars couldn’t be confiscated from a detained drug dealer, which were stored in bitcoins. The problem was that the wallets keys were lost.
The most secure way is a cold storage — all account data and private keys are kept offline and all transactions are manual. This storage method is great because it is fully protected from hacking and interception of data, but it is not suitable for those who make daily transfers of cryptocurrency, it is simply inconvenient.
If you compare “cold and hot” wallets, you can give a simple example: A hot wallet can be compared to a wallet that can be lost and stolen. But you can always access your funds. A cold wallet is safe, and access to it is not permanent. You can also take or put money, but it will require a special code.
In this article we will tell you about the most popular types of cold wallets and we will analyze their pros and cons.

Types of cold wallets

All cold wallets have one common thing — the data is stored offline. However, there are several types of cold wallets, which differ in the degree of protection, physical embodiment and cost of the wallet.

Desktop wallet

Desktop wallets are also known for a high level of protection, in addition to the ability to store crypto currency offline. There are so-called “light” wallets weighing less than 1 gb, and “heavy” wallets weighing more than 1 gb. Two of the desktop wallets can be distinguished:

Exodus Wallet

Multicurrency wallet. It was created in 2016 and supports more than 100 crypto currencies, since 2019 has a phone application. The wallet allows you to export private keys that are created locally, and then to upload them back. Private keys can be discounted to removable media and downloaded only when the transaction is completed. If the user decides to leave private keys on the same computer where the wallet is located, keys are securely encrypted. In order to use your wallet ,there is no need to register or to download the entire blockchain — synchronization is taking place online. In addition to wallet services Exodus Wallet provides an integrated crypto-exchange. The installation file weighs 85 mb.

Bitcoin Core

Bitcoin Core is the official Bitcoin wallet. The size of the wallet is 160 gb, but according to the developers of the company, it’s better to give it a separate winchester with the size of 500 gb. From the security viewpoint, it’s suggested to install a security code or a seed phrase, which may consist 8 words. It is also suggested to copy wallet.dat file. — private wallet key, which will allow you to restore access to your funds.

Hardware wallets

Appears like a regular flash drive with an interface (screen, control keys). This wallet can safely store information about the balance and keys, full functionality is available only when connected to a computer, but the latest models have a special button that allows you to confirm the transaction without connecting to a PC. Each time the device offers to generate a new code-password to confirm the transaction, which significantly reduces the probability of hacking. After generating the code, you need to set a mnemonic phrase (seed) — it consists of 12 or 24 words, which are not related to each other in any way. Such type of wallets has a special protection system that allows you to connect even to potentially infected PCs. The wallets themselves won’t be affected by malware.
The obvious cons of hardware wallets are the following:
  1. It is also possible to lose a device that is so small in size.
  2. A physical device can easily fail due to a variety of damages.
  3. It is not recommended to buy such wallets from “hand”, even from friends, as they can be pre-installed with malware.
As you can see, storing crypto currency with a hardware wallets is very safe and secure, however you should take care about the device. Many people who hold a large amount of crypto currency, in order to not to lose a hardware wallet, store it in a safe deposit box, depriving someone of access to it.

Popular Hardware Wallets models

Trezor One

The first hardware wallet produced in 2013 by the Czech company Satoshi Labs. The device has an OLED display with a pin code, public addresses and Seed phrases. Trezor One has won recognition from users due to its multicurrency and affordable price ($65), it is also considered one of the most secure hardware wallets.
Ledger Nano S
The wallet was released in 2016 by the French company Ledger SAS. Distinctive feature from the other wallets, is the Secure Element controller, which meets banking standards and is certified CC EAL 5+. Also, in order to work with each crypto currency you need to install a special application for this currency on the device, it is not quite convenient, however more secure. The average price of the device is $85.
KeepKey
The purse was released in 2015 in the U.S.. Distinctive feature is OLED display — 256 by 64 pixels. Due to this, you can fully see both the address of the wallet, and the seed phrase. Also, the wallet has a built-in exchange service ShapeShift — an opportunity to exchange crypto currency without entering the exchange. The average price of the device is $50.
BitBox01
Ionos Schnelly’s wallet was invented in Switzerland. In size it’s almost the most compact among all representatives of the hardware wallets. A distinctive feature is the availability of a backup — the card can be multiplied and kept in several places, by analogy with the seed-phrase. In November 2020, support for these wallets will be discontinued, but all owners will be given a 30% discount on the new model. The average price of the device is $55.
CoolWalletS
Developed in Taiwan by CoolBitX, which has long been manufacturing components for Visa and MasterCard. As well as Ledger Nano S has a security standard CC EAL 5+. This wallet works only through smartphones, connecting to them through Bluetooch. The average price of the device is $100.

Paper Wallet

In the age of technological process, plain paper has become a rather reliable method for storing cryptocurrency. With the help of special services, such as bitaddress.org, you can generate public and private keys, then writing them down on paper. You can also print keys as a QR code. To accept transactions with such a wallet, you provide the sender with a public key. To access the funds, you need to find any online wallet that supports your crypto currency. Enter your private key into your online wallet, thus integrating your funds into the system. However, you should understand that after this procedure your wallet will become “hot”.
The best of this storage method — paper wallet is free, its safety depends only from you. When storing a paper wallet to protect it from the fire, water and aging. Also, do not tell other people about where your paper wallet is hidden.
The disadvantages of this storage:
  1. If your wallet is lost, it will be impossible to restore it.
  2. Exposed to a physical damage.
  3. After sending the transaction, you will have to create a new cold wallet.

Offline transaction signature

For this storage method, you will need two PCs. The essence is that the secret keys are never in contact with the Internet, but are stored digitally. Offline transaction method is suitable for people who do not make a daily transactions and have an access to two devices. The process is below:
  1. A hot wallet is installed on a PC with the Internet. The transaction is created without entering private keys and authorization.
  2. The file with transaction is copied and transferred to the second PC without Internet, where private keys are stored.
  3. The transaction is signed offline, copied and transferred back to the PC with the Internet.
In fact, you can do it with one PC and a USB drive. The USB drive will store private keys. Also, you can create a transaction without entering private keys and authorization, after disconnecting the Internet, connect the flash drive, sign the transaction, turn on the Internet. In this case, you should take care of the antivirus system.
The disadvantages of this method:
  1. Using two PCs or a USB drive involves a lot of actions, which is time consuming.
  2. You need to back up your keys in case your PC or flash drive fails.

Multi-signature wallet

This method implies the creation of a wallet, which can be only withdrawn on condition that the transaction is verified by a predetermined number of users. The maximum number of users who can hold private keys of the wallet- is 15. It is considered as one of the most reliable ways of storage, in fact private keys are not only stored offline, but also divided between different people. Often the wallet with multisignatures is used by large crypto-companies, whose management believes that individually employees can not spend the budget. Moreover, when creating this wallet, the number of required multisignatures is minimal. For example: if one of the six keys is lost, the remaining ones will be enough for the transaction.
The disadvantages of this storage:
  1. If most of the keys are lost, access to the funds cannot be restored.
  2. You will not be able to make transactions on your own without the participation of other key holders.

Private Key Fragmentation

The private wallet key consists of 64 symbols. The key is divided into several fragments. They don’t represent anything separately, but if you put all the fragments together, you can access the funds. The key fragments are similar to multisignatures, but in this case you don’t need a multisig-wallet, and the whole process can be done manually.
The disadvantages of this method:
  1. If one fragment is lost, access to funds will be lost.
  2. The maximum level of protection can only be reached when key fragments are distributed to different places, for example: bookshelf, safe deposit box, car. If you divide the key fragments and put them in different boxes — the required level of protection will not be achieved.
When writing down key fragments on paper, protect the key from fire, water and aging.

Conclusion

Digital currencies are not physically expressed and exist only in the digital code, so cold wallets that doesn’t have an access to the Internet, protect cryptocurrencies from the most important and common problem — hacker theft. However, holders of cold wallets need to understand that the safety of a private key depends only on them. There are different ways to store private keys outside the network, but each of them makes it difficult for the user to make transactions.
Hardware wallets that have been specifically designed for this purpose are considered to be the best option for storing cryptocurrencies. With their help it is possible both to store funds off the network and to make transactions easily, without risking the safety of a private key. If you use other cold wallets, it is recommended to combine them with hot wallets. Keep the required crypto currency for daily transfers on hot wallets, and keep all other crypto on cold wallets.
Please don’t forget to follow us on Telegram and stay updated!
YOUR CRYPTO BOSS
submitted by yourcryptoboss19 to u/yourcryptoboss19 [link] [comments]

The most important properties of a CryptoCurrency and why crypto cannot compete with Fiat/USD today. [Thoughtful Discussion]

The dream of bitcoin, at least originally, was to become a spendable currency. One that could replace the use of government fiat currency. However, today there are not cryptocurrency that are realistically good enough to be used in place of standard USD debit cards or cash. So what properties would a cryptocurrency have to have in order for me to be able to stop using USD almost completely? I will attempt to build a list. The lack of any 1 of these properties would make it very, very difficult to replace USD completely.
  1. Ownership/Control/Security - it must be in my control, like bitcoin. Not custodial, like PayPal. Many cryptos offer meet this requirement as it's perhaps the main benefit of crypto.
  2. Cheap to use - I pay minimal transaction fees when using USD to buy things, I wouldn't want to switch to something that's much more expensive.
  3. Easy to Use/Spend - Mobile wallets are important here, because I can't bring my PC and Hardware wallet to the grocery checkout. Must be comparable to Apply/Samsung pay
  4. Instant Settlement - I'll lump in Transaction times and TPS together here. If my transaction isn't final nearly instantly, I just can't to use it to replace USD at the checkout.
  5. Financial Privacy - nobody knows the balance of my bank account or my transaction history when I use USD, and I wouldn't use a system where that info public. Nearly all coins fail this one.
  6. Stable value (or increasing) - When using USD, I know how much purchasing power I have. If I have enough money in my account to pay my rent, then the next day I don't. That's a problem.
There are no cryptocurrencies in existence in existence today that have all of the required properties listed above, and that is why crypto is a competitor to fiat/USD today.
At the risk of being downvoted for mentioning specific coins, I will provide some commentary on some existing projects that attempt to capture these important properties listed above.
If I didn't list your favorite coin, or I am missing any projects with a unique combination of properties, please leave a comment and let me know. Obviously it's impossible for me to know everything about every project out there.
As it stands today, there are no coins in existence that provides all 6 of these required properties, and that is the reason I still use USD for my day-to-day transactions. I could perhaps even look past 1 or even 2 of these properties if they were missing. But even then, few if any crypto projects today are close to providing all or most of these properties.
In my estimation, the ideal USD replacement coin (for me) would look something like DAI + Monero's privacy + Nano's speed and feeless-ness. So for the time being, I can't ditch my debit card.
submitted by UnknownEssence to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

How can a TKEY messenger allow you to send funds anywhere in the world without commissions and in a matter of seconds?

How can a TKEY messenger allow you to send funds anywhere in the world without commissions and in a matter of seconds?

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Yesterday was the official release of the new flagship product — Tkey Messenger. Messenger is available in the browser and on desktops for the most popular systems Windows, macOS, and Linux. Soon, smartphone owners will be able to try out Tkey Messenger in action, the app will appear in the App Store and Google Play.
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In the era of rapid communication and technology development, messengers have become our default products. We use them for business purposes, to communicate with friends and acquaintances — this has long been the norm. It would seem that why are other messengers created when there are many other instant messaging systems?
Today we will talk about what a Tkey Messenger is, what it can do today, what features will be included in it in the future, and most importantly, what we are creating It for and how we will develop it.

TKEY.ME

The abbreviated name of Tkey Messenger is tkey.me. First of all, TKEY-ME is a secure messenger with p2p audio and video calls, and in the future, a built-in digital wallet.
“Every day we communicate in messengers. We earn money at work. We make purchases and transfers. We are here to combine these processes in one application and make sending funds as easy as sending a message”

The Tkey Messenger as a new ecosystem

Do you think we are here to compete with other messengers? — No, there are a lot of great messengers. We are here to create our ecosystem and the internal market in it. Combine these processes in one application and make sending funds as easy as sending a message.
After all, we work in the field of FINTECH, cryptography, and blockchain, why not apply the best practices and knowledge in practice? Therefore, the TKEY Messenger should be considered for a large ecosystem.
This is a new payment segment that covers fast communication tools in combination with an internal payment system, a set of exchange practices, blockchain, cryptography, our own experience, and the experience of global companies.

How will the Tkey Messenger ecosystem work?

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Let’s start with the most important thing: money should be sent in a matter of seconds, regardless of the country of issue of the Bankcard and wherever you are.

Here is a simple example:

You or your relatives live abroad and you want to send funds quickly, for example, 2600 USD — you just open a chat with your loved one, send a message and 2600 USD in the same second become available on your loved one’s account.
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It turns out that you can exchange Tkeycoin for USD, EUR, or GBP in a matter of seconds, as well as instantly send them to any place in the world and without hidden fees, the exchange amount is immediately available on the screen.
Or you have Bitcoin, and the Recipient needs dollars — Tkey Messenger will take care of all the complex tasks, you will only need to send a message to make the payment.
Each completed payment will be processed through a digital payment system without Bank intervention. You can link your Bank card to automatically withdraw digital funds to your local currency.

Do you want to simplify payments even more?

Order a TKEY card, and it will automatically be linked to your Tkey Messenger account. Make payments online, make purchases in stores — it’s just as easy as you did before, only much more convenient, faster, and safer.
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The most important thing is that you can easily use digital assets in combination with Fiat currencies — just top up your account in messenger to start sending currency around the world.
“Moving money around the world should be as easy and cheap as sending a message. It doesn’t matter where you live, what you do, or how much you earn.”

Send TKEY or Bitcoin via message, has it become a reality?

In Tkey Messenger, you will be able to quickly send digital currency using a message. You can not specify a public address, but send a digital currency using a message.
Instantly send funds to friends or relatives anywhere in the world. No Bank, no problems, no hidden fees.

Top up your mobile phone or pay for the Internet?

The usual payments, such as the Internet or mobile payments, will certainly be available, because if we can transfer pounds from England to Canada in a matter of seconds, and the recipient will receive dollars, why can’t we make a payment for the Internet? “Of course you can.

Transfer funds by a nickname

You don’t need to know the recipient’s account, just send funds by their nickname to the Tkey Messenger, and the funds will arrive within a few seconds. Fast, convenient, and safe.
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New business opportunities

Flexible solutions for e-Commerce.

Business accounts, ready-made payment modules on Your site, and more.
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Special groups and pages

Create personalized business groups, fill your pages with products, promote your services, or online training using online broadcasts.
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Verified stores and business accounts

Any business will be able to import their services and products. TKEY DMCC is developing an intelligent system of business reviews and verification to eliminate fraud and fake reviews.
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Smart payment

Secure payment using a button or QR code, without the usual Bankcard input.
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What do we get in the future when using a Tkey Messenger?

We get an ideal payment system with instant transactions, fast access to various currencies, including digital, instant international payments, a huge platform for business, a marketplace with trusted sellers, secure transactions, while fast communication, p2p calls, and video communication. Not to mention various chips, in the format: cashback, savings account, invest. products, etc.
  • International transfers without Commission and in seconds;
  • Instant account opening — just create an account to get access to payments;
  • Access to funds 24/7/365 wherever you are.
  • Multi-currency wallet — you can use both digital currencies and classic currencies, such as the pound, euro, and dollar.
  • Payment in digital currency anywhere in the world.
  • Save time and money.

How is this possible, you say?

More than real, we will answer. At the very beginning of the project, we planned to create a marketplace, and then finalized the concept with NFC payments in TkeyPay. Smoothly, all this develops into a single system, which will be merged into a Tkey Messenger.
The Tkey Messenger is convenient and secure, payment system, and marketplace. The entire financial industry is in your hands-in your smartphone.
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The mobile Finance industry is developing rapidly against the backdrop of a growing number of Internet users and the increasing role of smartphones in modern life. Today, the mobile device market attracts about 2 billion people, who remain passive players in financial markets.
With the Tkey Messenger access, you always get access to instant Finance, shopping, and the nice things you want to get here and now. In practice, it has turned out that we can often forget the keys to the apartment, rather than the phone, so your finances will always be with you.

Join the global Tkey Messenger system right now

Release 1.0.0 is available in the web version and for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems, and shortly on your mobile devices.

Current functionality of Tkey Messenger 1.0.0

The Tkey Messenger version 1.0.0 is the core that opens up new features that we discussed above, payments, and more. Now it is a convenient and stylish messenger with an intuitive design, instant messaging, and secure audio and video communication.

The P2P audio and video calls in a Tkey Messenger

When creating the first version, we focused on high-quality video and audio communication. Now you can easily call by video and be sure that you will get a high-quality video stream, as well as the absence of restrictions from third parties because the connection is carried out on the principle of p2p.
Audio and video calls are made in p2p mode, so there is no recording of calls at all.
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You can chat with friends and colleagues around the world for free, and excellent audio and video quality will only positively affect the quality of your conversation.

Calls in the web version

The web version of Tkey Messenger is available at → http://web.tkey.me/. The web version has full call functionality, so you can easily call through it, both via video and audio.
Video calls are available with the “Share” function, you can easily “share” your screen for the interlocutor and show what is happening on it. This function can be used for presentations or training events.
Screen Sharing is a demonstration and broadcast of the screen. “Share” your screen for the interlocutor and show what is happening on it.
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Group video and audio calls for up to 50 people

In the web version, you can launch a group video call. In the chat, tap the “handset” icon — the call will be sent to all participants in the chat, so all participants in the group chat can hold a video conference of up to 50 people. The user can turn on the camera and not turn it on, but simply participate in a video conference via audio.
On average, messengers that support the function of video calls in high quality, hold a video stream of no more than 8–10 people. In a Tkey Messenger, group conferences support up to 50 people. Soon-public online broadcasts and streams.
On the call page, you can conveniently distribute the Windows of the connected video stream.
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Unlimited private group chats

The first version only supports private chats and group chats. Group chats are also completely private, so there is no “Share” function, only the chat participant can invite another participant to the group chat.
Create your thematic chats. Work. Family. Friends. Be the first while we develop. Soon-public channels and chats.
Anyone can start an audio or video call, and the notification goes through all participants. Switching to audio or video mode can be switched right at the moment of the call.
As we have already mentioned, group chats are completely private. You can make video and audio calls, send messages, and invite other participants.
To invite a new chat participant, any user can invite another user to a group chat. To do this, click on the “three points” menu icon.

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Next, enter the nickname of the participant you want to invite to the group chat in the search.

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Deleting information in group chats

Each participant, when they click the “Exit and delete” button, deletes messages and information from the chat on their side.
In group chats, all information is deleted by the last person to leave the group chat. After deleting-all messages, media, photos, and other data that were in this chat are automatically deleted. If all participants leave the group chat, it will be automatically deleted, and all information published in the group chat will also be deleted.

The chat between the two parties

This is a classic private chat between two participants, instant messaging, sending media.
The rights of the participants are equal. Any chat participant can delete the entire chat. after deleting all messages, media, photos, and other data that was in this chat, it is automatically deleted.

Installation process

Our developers do everything to make Tkeycoin products as clear and convenient as possible for our users, so the process of using Tkey Messenger is very simple. If you want to install TKEY-ME on your laptop or computer, just download the installer from the official website and enjoy it.
Tkey Messenger is available in the Linux app store — https://snapcraft.io/tkey-me and is available on all popular Linux distributions: Ubuntu, Debian, Arch Linux, CentOS, Fedora, KDE Neon, Kubuntu, Manjaro, Linux Mint, openSUSE, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, elementary OS.
The web version is available at the link — https://web.tkey.me/.
The Tkey Messenger also has a new section in the Tkeycoin Knowledge Base, where you can get answers to frequently asked questions and installation instructions: https://help.tkeycoin.com/collection/10-tkey-messenger.

Furthermore

https://preview.redd.it/uuf5czxsxe651.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=72793fda253405a4884183d09e3b5686bd01407a
In addition to the payment system that we have described in detail, we certainly do not forget about the functions of the messenger itself. The Tkey Messenger will be transformed with each update, adding the already familiar features for many:
  • Public chats;
  • Channels;
  • Overshoes;
  • Profile;
  • Broadcasts;
  • Status;
  • Call notifications;
  • Emoticons, gifs, documents, and stickers.
Send ideas and suggestions about new features to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) — we will be happy to receive your feedback. Please also send any errors or bugs you find to the above address.
To sum up, a Tkey Messenger today — concise design, color schemes, messaging and photos, group chats without restrictions, audio and video calls, multilingual version, group conferences for up to 50 people, peer-to-peer connections for calls and messages, push notifications, statuses, adaptation for all popular platforms — iOS, Android, Web, Windows, Linux, macOS.
The Tkey Messenger is a powerful payment system in your mobile. If you are interested in this, then we are on our way — join us https://tkey.me/.
https://preview.redd.it/3k02x1luxe651.png?width=1316&format=png&auto=webp&s=8e0fbd57edd29edc2aaee62b409dd3690b2b1c4b
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Your Guide to Cryptocurrency Wallets

Your Guide to Cryptocurrency Wallets

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In order to use cryptocurrencies, a potential user must have a cryptocurrency wallet. But what is a cryptocurrency wallet? What role does it play in securing your cryptocurrencies?
A cryptocurrency wallet, to put it simply, is a digital medium used to buy, send, receive and spend digital currencies, such as Bitcoin and any other supported altcoins or tokens. Users can view their cryptocurrency balances and make transactions using a cryptocurrency wallet.
How Does it Work?
Note that since cryptocurrencies are virtual currencies that runs on the blockchain, wallets are created not to contain or store cryptocurrencies but to act as a medium for the user to interact within the blockchain. A wallet generates and holds both private and public keys that allows users to access their cryptocurrencies conveniently.
Confused?
Imagine a vault. Storage vault helps secure things conveniently and securely. The same goes for a cryptocurrency wallet. It acts as a storage of both private and public keys, which are needed for any cryptocurrency transactions.
Each wallet gives its users a unique account number more popularly known as a wallet address. A public key is used to generate a unique wallet address. Wallet addresses are simplified versions of public keys and a combination of randomly generated upper and lowercase letters, and numbers. Just like normal bank accounts, a wallet address can be shared with other people to receive cryptocurrencies.
Sample of a BTC Address:
1A1zP1eP5QGefi2DMPTfTL5SLmv7DivfNa
Private keys, on the other hand, serves as the password or verification code of the user’s cryptocurrency transactions. It gives users access to the actual funds they have on the blockchain. Unlike public keys which can be shared publicly, private keys MUST ALWAYS be kept safely by the user. So, if the user unlucky losses his public key or address, it can always be retrieved given that he still has the private key.
Cryptocurrency wallets let users view their existing balances and move cryptocurrency funds (such as buying and selling cryptocurrencies) on the blockchain system using these keys. A public key is only tied to one private key, meaning only the user can verify the transactions within his or her wallet.
Types of Cryptocurrency Wallet
Wallets can be classified into two categories: hot wallets and cold wallets. A hot wallet is a wallet connected to the internet while cold wallets are not. Under these categories are various cryptocurrency wallet types, namely, paper wallets, hardware wallets, and software wallets.
Selecting a specific type of wallet depends on the needs of each individual as every wallet has different functions and features. Some wallets are made for only a single cryptocurrency, while some offer more than one coin or altcoins.
Paper Wallets
Paper wallets are cold wallets wherein public and private keys are printed out in a sheet of paper (usually in a QR code form). This is not connected to any servers, and the only way to access it is to enter the key into any software wallet or scan the QR code. Open source services are available online to create the keys locally on your computer or device. This means that the data is not sent over the internet, leaving it safe and secure (considering that your device is virus-free and malware-free). Since these wallets are printed out, users must keep it carefully to avoid any theft by losing it.
Hardware Wallets
Hardware wallets are dedicated electronic devices (like USB) that stores a user’s private and public keys. It uses a Random Number Generator (RNG) to generate public and private keys. Users need to plug-in their device in any computer or laptop with an installed program that lets users do transactions.
Software Wallets
This kind of wallet comes in three different forms, namely, web, desktop, and mobile wallets. The similarity with these forms is they are all connected to the internet.
Web Wallet
Web wallets allow users to access blockchains through the use of any web browser without installing anything. Though they are more convenient to access, it can be vulnerable to hacking attacks and theft.
Desktop Wallet
Desktop wallets are downloaded and installed on a specific computer or laptop. It gives users full control over their keys and funds. Ensuring that the computer is free from any viruses or malware before and during the wallet is installed helps remove the possibility of any malicious hacking attempts.
It is important to regularly backup the desktop wallet and private keys in order to access this wallet in case the computer or laptop in which the wallet is installed malfunctioned.
Mobile Wallet
Like its desktop counterpart, a mobile wallet runs in a smartphone using a mobile application. These are considered more convenient than the desktop wallet as it can technically be used anywhere and everywhere with the use of the mobile phone.
Most of the coins or tokens available in the market have their own wallet. In the case of Swipe Token (SXP), it has its very own Swipe Wallet app which runs on the Ethereum blockchain. The Swipe Wallet application supports multiple types of cryptocurrencies where users can buy, send, and spend it instantly within the app.
Having a cryptocurrency wallet is an essential part of managing cryptocurrency funds. By using a wallet, users can easily send and receive cryptocurrency funds. On which kind of wallet is safe to use, it really depends on the needs of each individual. Each type of wallet has a unique function which is why it is important to identify your needs before getting a specific type of wallet.
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This blog entry is also published at: https://sw.pe/blogcryptowallet
submitted by SwipeWallet to Swipe_io [link] [comments]

Apparently, Christmas is on Halloween this year! :) [Winner's Thread #35]

Where to start? I think my first post-realization post pretty much sums it up. I guess it's a tasteful combination of surprised shock - because I'm the unluckiest fool on Earth when it comes to these things, I've never so much as won a sticker in a tombola -, guilt - I used to participate pretty regularly in this sub, but the last couple months I kinda lost track of it. I almost didn't participate actually, as I think the last winner or two probably didn't get the usual couple $ from me (I'll make up for it!), and only really commented because I thought the rake thing was funny -, and elation - as this couldn't have come at a better time. Winning is the kind of thing that I daydream about, and I love the idea of the community participating in making others' lives easier. This sub and its concept is awesome, and I love being a part of it (even when I don't win)!
I don't usually like to talk much about myself online, but y'all deserve to know a bit about who you're helping out :-) So, I'm 33, I live in Belgium. I'm a biologist, I have a cat, 4 birds, and a husband. My username is actually partially based off the name of one of my pets, Kiwi, a little conure that I helped save when she was a baby birb. Love of my life (sorry, hubby!). Life has been overall good, I know I'm lucky compared to many people, despite things being a bit rough and complicated recently, having a hard time finding work and such. We're not rich, but we have a roof over our heads and food on the table, and we've even been able to splurge a bit for our wedding this summer (well, more the honeymoon than the wedding itself, tbh), thanks to our friends who helped out. I might not have much, but I try to be generous with what I do have, and to be a positive addition to the lives of people I cross.
So what am I going to do with all these sudden riches? Well there was a nice little luxury villa in the Bahamas I had my eye on... More seriously, a good part will probably go to helping pay some bills that just popped up, like my kitty's recent vet visit, and rent which has just gone up. Then according to what's left, I would love to be able to take my husband out to a nice restaurant or a concert he's been eyeing, because he's a good man and I can't gift him these things as often as I'd like. Then, if it's possible, I'd love to fly over to see my brother, who lives in another country, and get to see my nephew for his birthday. We'll see what's possible :-) either way, I'm so grateful to all of you!
I just want to end with a big shout-out: to the mods, who are really friendly and do a great job a running this sub, and and u/lilfruini in particular who so patiently helped work through timezone and technical issues; to the community as a whole, for making this kind of thing possible, and restoring faith in humanity's ability to share and care about others; and of course, last but not least, to all of you, whether you donate or just leave a friendly comment, for bringing a smile to my face today and whenever I'll be raking my leaves :-)
Cheers to all of you!!
PS: Haiku!
It seems I have won Amazing rakes incoming! Leaves on lawn no more.
Edit: I'm blown away by the generosity. Every single one of you are amazing people! I hope you have a fantastic day <3
Edit 2: [Updated again!] As per request, here are the winnings so far :-)
Total = $1876.18
Thank you so much everyone, you're amazing!! I'm trying to answer and thank all of you personally ❤ I'm sending out big hugs also to those who have donated without leaving comments below, thank you so much! And also, a special high-five to one of you who sent me a PayPal request for a 1$ payment :-D don't worry about it, happens to the best of us and I had a good laugh :-D Cheers everyone! ❤
Edit 3 & 4: Kitty tax! and some birdy pics
This part is written by the mods:

All of the amounts below should result in lilikiwi receiving about $1 USD.

Methods of payment:


Tipbots

| Guide | Amount | Comment this to donate
:- | :- | :- | :-
Tippr | Guide | $1 | “tippr $1”
ChainTip | Guide | $1 | “chaintip”, then send $1 to the address

Cryptocurrency transfer

| Guide | Amount | Address (click for QR Code)
:- | :- | :- | :- | :-
Bitcoin Cash | Guide | 0.0023 BCH | bitcoincash:qqhycmf72aej5vrt79ttr2p6wsapf4cyuyv4t559dr
Handcash | Guide | $1 | $LILIWIKI2018 (for QR code, see Bitcoin Cash)
Bitcoin | Guide | 0.00016 BTC | 12GNZdCJCd5pummCSLfFs6D3TtAzNPQjQ3
Litecoin | Guide | 0.019 LTC | LKQrVGmJgMYPyxWT2vGNjSJXwKUgLojvQM
Ethereum | Guide | 0.0050 Ether | 0x55CDd28c2847b457Be8bc98C285fd945574BF9B7
Dogecoin | Guide | 225 Doge | DPn8m1Gfo1waFaaBuCHAe7UmrPMLcbA96i
Steem | Guide | 1.23 Steem | @millmakers

Cash transfer

| Guide | Amount | Address
:- | :- | :- | :-
PayPal | Guide | $1* | [email protected]

* - Transfer fee from U.S. to Europe varies depending on the amount, see this link
submitted by lilikiwi to millionairemakers [link] [comments]

Digital Currencies, Stablecoins, and the Challenges Ahead

SPEECH
December 18, 2019
Lael Brainard
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on the Monetary Policy, Technology, and Globalisation Panel at “Monetary Policy: The Challenges Ahead,” an ECB Colloquium Held in Honour of Benoît Coeuré sponsored by the European Central Bank Frankfurt, Germany
\\
Source
submitted by wumzao to econmonitor [link] [comments]

Telegram AMA - Summary

Telegram AMA - Summary
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Zhuling Chen
It’s always great to hang out in this group. This group means a lot to the Aelf community. It is the first Aelf community and has been there through all the ups and downs in the world. I would like to start with wishing everyone is staying safe at home during the virus outbreak. It definitely has been a difficult time for all of us, but together we can pull through it.
We understand that the situation is quite striking to all of us. But I really believe that the solution to the virus outbreak is about more global coordination and collaboration.
All of you to be assured, our team in different places are all safe and working from home as normal.
The Aelf team in Beijing were among the early ones experiencing the virus outbreak. As everyone was on the way home for Lunar New Year holiday and then experienced a total city lock-down followed by a 40 days’ work from home policy. It was definitely not easy for them, but our team stayed strong, took necessary precautions and focused on work with the right morale. Mappo has recently published some tips on how to work from home effectively based on our experience. Do check it out. Despite not working in the office since February, we have achieved great progress, including launching Aelf 1.0 preview, which is an important milestone in technical delivery and also the roadmap to mainnet launch (which listed out the essential steps for the community to work together to launch a successful public network)
Let's first talk about Aelf v1.0 preview. It is the cornerstone of the mainnet launch. The product itself has all the features that the public network is needed. The codebase has been reviewed and tested rigorously by the team. And a few highlights of how the network would look like:
  1. The code allows a stable and high throughput blockchain network to operate publicly.
  2. For developers, they will love how flexible the system is to be customized, the number of tools and documentation to help them start developing applications on the network
  3. For the whole community, the system is an ever-evolving one where the voting system is ready in place to conduct network-wide voting on various topics, such as transaction fee adjustment, network protocol upgrade, incentive adjustment, etc
  4. Aelf system is able to run multi-chain architecture where each side chain will host different applications and still ready to work with each other
So you may ask since the software is ready, why have we not yet launched the public network? The answer, in short, is that a public blockchain is launched not by a team but through a community effort and that's why we are coordinating the community effort based on the roadmap we proposed. Aelf team has launched the public testnet based on Aelf v1.0 preview and currently, all nodes are under the team. The goal is to let the community and elected nodes to take it over and launch it on a global scale. Not only launch it but also be familiar with the network and also set the launch parameters in a decentralized way. If we take a car as an example, we have made the car, but ultimately the drivers are you guys and therefore before it really hits on the road, we need to guide the community to do a test drive, adjust the car based on what really works for YOU, and ultimately let YOU drive the car freely and safely
So how are we going to help the community launch the network:
First of all, we have launched the codes, documents about the economic system and governance model and technical features. With all the things available, you are able to understand what the system is about, as a token holder what's your benefit in the system, and being a node in the system plays a big role in the governance
Next, without yet electing the nodes, we will get all token holders to join the current Aelf network through a mapping event. That means as long as you have Aelf tokens, you will be able to get 1:1 test tokens on the public testnet. that gives you full access to all the features, and you will feel like you are already using the mainnet. You will get rewarded in making transactions, voting, etc.
Do try out the Aelf wallet and voting features, you will see how easy to transfer tokens cross-chain. and also how flexible the system allows people to make changes. For example, the community may want to adjust the block rewarding parameters or fees to use certain services on mainnet, they can initiate a discussion and then vote in the system and once voted through, it will be reflected on mainnet.
For people or organizations that want to play a bigger role in the system, we will do a dry run of node election. Take it as the real node election before mainnet launch. We will see who the active members of the community are and being trusted by the community. Among the nodes, we will form a network launch committee. The committee will be the crucial party to oversees and ensures the smooth launch of Aelf mainnet, instead of just relying on the Aelf team. This is our step towards decentralization.
The committee will agree on the actual launch process, final checking all the parameters in the system to be ready for launch and then decide when the criteria are met to launch the network. Once all that is decided. We will invite all interested nodes to apply for the election and let the community know what's their plan to grow the Aelf network. the network will initially be launched with a few nodes from the committee and gradually be replaced by the selected nodes (a bootstrap phase). Along the way, we will work with exchanges to conduct token swap (which we are also designing an innovative system to further enhance security and usability of Aelf tokens in exchanges)
Among this isolated and worrisome time, at least we all have something to look forward to: a successful launch of Aelf network! Once it is launched, we are excited to see a vibrant and technically superior network that is good for Dapps to run on top of it.
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Doris Guo Q1: As a Blockchain start-up, what difficulties have you overcome when starting Aelf project? What motivates you to solve difficulties and achieve success today?
Zhuling Chen First, just like launching any start-up, its community and investors are usually regional. There is always some bias on if Asian projects are solid. It is really rare to have an Asian project to be supported by western funds and community from day 1. We were lucky to have overcome that obstacle. Having a global investor line-up from day 1. Having a global team from day 1 and also working with a global community from day 1. This benefited us to have an international perspective which is crucial in the blockchain industry.
Secondly, as a hardcore technology company, it is really hard to put in plain words what is our ambition. Our ambition is huge, achieving key innovations in multiple fronts of blockchain technology and organically combined them to serve real users for the future. Our marketing team has been working really hard to elaborate on what Aelf is. Now we have come to a point that the product is ready. Therefore, it is much easier for all of us to understand how solid Aelf is by trying out the network ourselves! That's exactly what the following events will be about - Try out all the exciting features of Aelf network before mainnet launch.
Doris Guo Q2: What critical problems do you see occurring in the blockchain industry nowadays? How does Aelf solve these problems?
Haobo Ma First, we need to distinguish the difference between BTC and ETH. One is Digital Cash and the other is the Smart Contract Platform. Aelf addresses most of the latter's problems. In short, it can be summarized as performance, end-user friendly, developer-friendly, network economy, and self-governance and upgrading. Each of these areas will probably take up a lot of space, and as a whole are the issues described in our two white papers. In short, Aelf is faster, end-users do not need to know the rules of the blockchain, developers can set up the development environment in 10 minutes, have a good economic model and can carry out proposal governance on the chain.
Doris Guo Q3: What is your long-term vision about the industry which Aelf is working at? Are you afraid someday there will be another project with more innovative technology can replace Aelf?
Haobo Ma Let's talk about where Aelf stands in the traditional Internet. It is essentially a cloud service provider, Aelf provides resources and infrastructure for developers to deploy their services, known as smart contracts. We eventually want Aelf to grow like AAA (Amazon, Azure, AliCloud). Because Aelf is a network that can be dynamically scaled, we can accept any new technology, some of the more advanced technologies we can put on a side chain.
Doris Guo Q4: Why did Aelf choose for cross-chain interaction?
Haobo Ma As I mentioned earlier, Aelf solves the Smart Contract Platform problem. However, there are other digital cash problems as well which we would need to use existing infrastructure such as Bitcoin's chain in order to interact with Bitcoin. There are a lot of infrastructures on Ethereum that we want to interact with. Multi-chain on Aelf network mainly is to isolate resources to improve network performance and network stability.
Doris Guo Q5: What difficulties do the Aelf team have now (I talk about COVID-19)? How does the Aelf team solve it? Have you changed the roadmap?
Haobo Ma There is no great impact. The teams in Singapore and Beijing are communicating with each other remotely on a regular basis. The only change is that most of us are now working from home which has no impact and in fact, it seems conducive to the acceptance of more community developers in the future to come. From the internal working schedule and development timeline, there is no great impact. We do not publish specific timeline as we do not want short term holders (traders) to create too much negative pressure on product development.
Doris Guo Q6: Aelf is an open-source blockchain, and there's the common problem of taking a substantial amount of time for the different participants to agree on strategic decisions. What types of governance models do you use in Aelf to address this issue???
Haobo Ma The issue is about public blockchain network, and who can decide the direction of the network. Our answer is long-term holders. For the short-term holders (traders), we refuse to allow them to participate in any discussion of the direction of Aelf because the short-term holders are likely to make a profit and sell quickly, which is essentially the same example of a person who cheats the President and then runs away for his personal gain. We defined a number of proposal processes, including the logic of the two-party system in the United States, and the participation in the referendum to ensure that the final proposal represents the majority. At the same time, we are looking for some legal solutions to avoid bifurcation, such as prohibiting exchanges from intervening in bifurcated new tokens. While we cannot limit a community, we should be able to find ways to limit a centralized organization. This restriction is akin to a ban on national secession.
Doris Guo Q7: How will Aelf empower Investors, Companies, Developers, Platform Users to deliver impactful solutions and bring value to people all over the world?
Haobo Ma We will learn from the operational experience of successful foundations such as the LINUX foundation and license some commercial companies to use Aelf solutions to solve business problems. At the same time, Aelf is an open-source product under the MIT License, and we accept any use that does not violate this open-source principle.
Zhuling Chen Let me add on to Haobo’s statement: to incentivize and empower the community, we are also exploring ways to let the community decide how to use the funds for Aelf (allocate to where it matters to our community) once mainnet is launched. This means you guys can decide what are the projects to be funded on Aelf, etc
Doris Guo Q8:When will the node campaign start? How will Aelf attract users to participate in nodes election?
Haobo Ma According to our published roadmap, the timeline can be dynamic, but I don't think it will be too long. The main idea is to let everyone understand what we envision Aelf to be like, and what are the rights and benefits of being a node in the future. We hope to find nodes that fully recognize the efforts of Aelf at the present stage and are willing to participate in the future development of Aelf. We will run a simulation of the node campaign on the testnet and set up a temporary mainnet launch committee. Please follow our official Twitter for more upcoming details!
Doris Guo Q9: Token swap form 2 is some kind of cross-chain transfer? It will be handled by a smart contract?
Haobo Ma It is handled by the smart contract, we define an asset cross-chain transfer protocol, but it may be opened after a snapshot.
Doris Guo Q10: Which Exchanges will support token swap? Do you have any plan to list Aelf in some big exchange like Binance, Houbi, Kucoin, .......?
Haobo Ma We are already in talks with some exchanges, there is still competition between exchanges, and many are still hoping to attract more users by getting access to mainnet token swap early.
Doris Guo Q11: Aside conversion of the current tokens to mainnet tokens, what other main features will be accomplished with the mainnet launch?
Haobo Ma We have a documentation file that has been published, which has listed some features: https://Aelf.io/gridcn/Aelf_public_testnet_and_supporting_features_introduction_en_v1.0.pdf
Doris Guo Q12: Do you have any plan to burn or buyback your coin?
Haobo Ma We have plans for the community to govern through DAO, we have no interest in short-term price incentive adjustment as we would prefer to drive the project to higher adoption. After mainnet starts operation, there will be a part of network revenue get destroyed automatically.
Doris Guo Q13: Often, as a newbie developer, I face difficulties on most blockchains. How easy and convenient is it for me on Aelf, and what programming language and tools are needed??
Haobo Ma We set up staging for DAPP developers on GitHub and configured CI. Develop a smart contract using C# with React Native on the front end. So, in fact, developers can fork the source code without setting up the environment locally, and you can conduct unit testing with the help of CI. You can also release the smart contract and generate the installation package of iOS and android online. https://github.com/AElfProject/Aelf-boilerplate
Doris Guo Q14: What is the progress of business development and what are some of your commercial partnerships? How will Aelf rapidly develop the number & performance of DAPP?
Haobo Ma First of all, the blockchain industry is still fairly small and users with ETH and EOS wallets are considered a very small group and its not effective to even promote within these groups. What we need to consider is how to enable users who have never been exposed to blockchain to use DAPP. The competitiveness of Aelf is to make it easier for Aelf developers to promote their DAPP to ordinary users, rather than to teach ordinary users a lot on blockchain knowledge. The average user doesn't like to hear about private keys, mnemonic, Gas Price, RAM, CPU, etc. Only until we solve such problems, companies that need to solve problems through blockchain will be more inclined to use Aelf in technology selection. Therefore, our main work is to explain the competitive advantages of Aelf, ETH and EOS to everyone. We have some business cooperation’s, but we also believe that simply through case-by-case business cooperation will not be able to gain adoption so quickly, therefore we still need to put our products to stay ahead of the next generation.
Doris Guo Q15: What other activities can encourage more people to be confident about Aelf?
Haobo Ma We are only going to state the truth by having those that have faith in us to stay and those that don't to leave. The development of Aelf is not driven by a single foundation, but by a steady stream of contributions from the community. In the future, we will also place the activities in the DAO for on-chain governance, and let the community make decisions by itself.

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Kun Aguero As you know that in the present market situation many new coins or either dying or thriving for liquidity? How will you manage this liquidity problem?
Zhuling Chen Aelf started in 2017. we have gone through a few cycles in the market, still, remember the big down period in 2018-2019. Aelf is financially solid and the team has always been working hard. if you are referring to liquidity in exchanges, we are among the lucky ones that are listed in all major exchanges
Xinshu Dong Hello, great discussions! I would like to ask what are the criteria to join the committee for launching the mainnet? Would love to participate
Zhuling Chen Hi xinshu, great to see you here. The committee will be chosen among the nodes elected during the testnet dry run. Which means, it is really important to participate in the testnet dry run and also start to establish your reputation in the community so that people will elect you as a node. The detailed criteria will include what is your plan to help Aelf to grow, tech competency and reputation.
An Da What are Aelf’s achievements in 2019? Who had supported you to get those things?
Zhuling Chen To name a few, in 2019, Aelf is one of the most active projects on GitHub. This means Aelf is evolving and improving fast in this space and our team has the tech strength. In addition, we have also successfully listed on all major cloud service providers, such as AWS, Azure, Google. So large companies can easily launch Aelf side chains in their organization with minimum hassle.
John How does the voting for master nodes candidates occur? And why is the development of this system important for your project?
Zhuling Chen Voting is going to be pretty simple. All token holders can vote for the nodes they support on our block explorer.
Miha After mainnet lunch, how will you assure that transactional fees will stay low? We know what sometimes happens to fees on ETH blockchain.
Zhuling Chen First of all, due to the fact that is Aelf is scalability, this will reduce transaction fee. Secondly, all transaction fees will be voted by the nodes (which will be elected by you). So they will represent your interest
Bobbyfernandito Currently, as we see All projects are concerned with the speed and security. So, tell us here - what are the facilities Aelf provide to their user and investors?
Haobo Ma Security: we have an automated smart contract code audit. During contract deployment, production nodes and the community audit participation are required. On the other hand, we are also planning to provide a standardized model of centralized exchange access for 100% asset certification and emergency measures to deal with exchange attacks, which we will be released later. Speed: Aelf has been working on improving performance, which is transparent to users which they can also experience by themselves.
An Da What effect does Aelf token have on the Aelf ecosystem? Holding Aelf, what benefits will users receive?
Zhuling Chen Holding ELF enables you to use all the services on the Aelf network. ELF has a deflating system where the total amount will reduce as the network grows. token holders can also vote for the nodes to run the network and also vote for big decisions in the network. part of the fees in the system will also be distributed to token holders via a smart contract
ahihi132 Which companies do you view them as potential partners and that they are somewhat also beneficial for both the user base and Aelf itself?
Zhuling Chen Great question, if I could write a wish list, that will be: let medium-sized financial institutions to use Aelf to challenge the big boys. Let telecommunication companies use Aelf for micro-payment and other innovative business models. We also would like to try out a few public sector projects, which blockchain will is still more transparency and trust
Misun Q1: Which programming languages are you using in your project? And why? Q2-What are another big MILESTONES you have planned for 2020 roadmap and how are they supposed to benefit your costumers? Will it be an exciting year?
Haobo Ma For Q1: We mainly use C# for development, I personally like it. Performance is good, development environment IDEs are strong, and C# creators are influential in the industry. We believe in the right thing, though it may take a while to develop. The smart contract will then add support for multiple languages, such as WebAssembly, depending on the needs of the community. Now it seems that C# is enough.
Hambi crypto Which platforms are your competitors? How will you soar above them, and what better things do you offer than them? So, What’s your outlook on the future of cryptocurrencies in this year and next few years?
Haobo Ma As I have already mentioned this before, Eth and Eos. We provide better performance, cross-chain support (already implemented), end-users do not need to know the details of the blockchain, developer’s payment models and so on.
Floris-Jan What plans is Aelf making to prevent centralized exchange to take over the DPoS algorithm like what happened to Steem? Are we talking about blacklisting exchange wallets, or having the foundation say "No", or putting all trust in the community?
Zhuling Chen Great question, Floris. I’m not going to give away all the details of what Haobo has proposed to work on this, but in a nutshell, in Aelf system, exchange wallets will not be allowed to vote, but only the sub-wallets for each individual can vote. This will also help exchanges to prevent hacking and theft in the future
Alex What your plans in place for global expansion, are Aelf wallet focusing on the only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships? Can you explain this?
Haobo Ma Our core focus will be through the developers to promote, developers will help Aelf to attract more users. So our product has to be attractive to developers. Just like AWS, they only focus on getting their service right, their developers will think about how to promote it. We don't want to burden them in their promotion process.
Ellkay What do you think are the major threats and barriers that could face the development and adoption of Aelf?
Haobo Ma If I'm a DAPP developer and I need to promote my APP to people who don't recognize blockchain, then I'd like to choose a platform that doesn't have to explain a lot of blockchain details to the end-user, so they can use it easily. We've provided some options in the Boilerplate that allow you to log-in simply via QR code + Password, and our recommended Dapp is an independent wallet and a separate iOS/Android application.
ahihi132 Give me some important reasons why we need to hold Aelf token where in fact hundreds of projects failed and it went to bankruptcy or even developers run when they collect millions/billions of funds?
Haobo Ma First of all, we will not give any suggestions as we only describe the fact that the long-term token holder will be able to govern the Aelf network, get Aelf mining reward and Aelf network profit. At the same time, Aelf network is a deflation model, Aelf network received transaction fees, profit dividends will immediately destroy 10% etc. All investments are risky, and we don't judge the behaviour of other developers. There are so many things in this world that cannot be understood and unfair. It is important to do our job well. I cannot explain these things.
见愁 I remember that boss Ma mentioned to only find those truly innovative applications and enterprises with blockchain, how to find and win partners in these aspects?
Haobo Ma When Linus was developing Linux, I did not think he would find a lot of collaboration when the code was not good. The response we can give is that we already have a lot of interest in cooperation, including what we have announced, what we have not announced, etc.
见愁 How interested are cloud computing providers in participating nodes?
Haobo Ma The vast majority of our nodes should be using cloud services, and as long as a large number of our 17 nodes and other candidate nodes are based on cloud services, our network robustness is determined by these cloud computing providers. Of course, in the expansion, we can also use cloud computing services.
submitted by Floris-Jan to aelfofficial [link] [comments]

How do I "summon" android wallet QR code?

I am trying to buy bitcoin with cash on bitcoin atm. The bitcoin atm requires me to scan QR code from the screen on my android smartphone.
If I understand this correctly, this QR code that should appear on my android btc wallet is the 30 symbol long address that is my digital wallet. I have Mycellium, Blockchain and "Bitcoin" android wallets but I dont know how to do it with any of them.
Yesterday I tried it with Blockchain wallet but I failed and when I got home and did further research it seems I need to send selfie and ID to real person who will review and approve me so I can use it. I read that this is needed becose the Blockchain wallet allows trading.
I dont want to trade, so I did quick google and I read Mycelium wallet allows usage without sending ID and selfies for approval. I have around 1 hour left to figure this out, please help me, how can I make this QR code appear so I can buy bitcoins?
I found this QR code thingy when trying things in Mycelium. There is this option "Export accound keys" in upper right corner. There is public and private key and three versions each = xpub, ypub and zpub... each one of the 6 different combinations shows different QR code on screen. This is that QR code that I need to use to buy bitcoin on atm? Should I use public or private key? Which of the 3 different versions should I use?
submitted by Modaphilio to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

myNode - The easiest way to run Bitcoin and Lightning

myNode - The easiest way to run Bitcoin and Lightning
https://preview.redd.it/73isnisrdn231.png?width=977&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4b2a68c96bbf9d5d8e5e8653e96860af667b671
Bitcoin,

We wanted to let you know about the latest Lightning-in-a-box solution, myNode!
Our aim is to combine the best open source software from the community with our own UI, monitoring, and integration to create the easiest and most reliable way to run Bitcoin and Lightning. By going through this process of integrating the best projects in Bitcoin and Lighting on one device, we aim to contribute back to the community through donations and open source contributions. We want to make Bitcoin and Lightning available to as many people as possible!

myNode
myNode aims to be the easiest way to run a dedicated, easy to use, Bitcoin Full Node and Lightning Wallet! By combining the best open source software with our UI, management, and monitoring software, you can easily, safely, and securely use Bitcoin and Lightning.
myNode is a dedicated device that provides access to the Bitcoin and Lightning networks along with a number of other features! By using a dedicated device, like myNode, you get uptime, reliability, and ease-of-use that other software-only solutions cannot provide.
By running a Bitcoin Full node and Lightning on your myNode device, you maintain all the security and advantages originally intended in the Bitcoin protocol. Information about your Bitcoin addresses and spending is verified by your local node and removes the need to trust online 3rd parties for getting information about your funds.
https://mynodebtc.com/

Features
  • Full Bitcoin Node
  • Lightning Wallet
  • Simple UI / Web Interface
  • Bitcoin Explorer
  • Electrum Server - BTC Light Wallet Server
  • Ride the Lightning - Lightning Wallet
  • LND Hub - Lightning Wallet Server
  • Bitcoin CLI
  • QuickSync - Quickly sync Bitcoin blockchain
  • LND Connect - Generate QR Codes for connecting wallets
  • LN Channel Backup
  • Dedicated hardware keeps you constantly and securely connected!
  • Tor
  • VPN
  • Device Health Monitoring
  • Frequent Updates
  • Support
  • And more!

Order / Support Us
We've completed the software and are now accepting orders on our website!
http://mynodebtc.com/order_now

YouTube
For more information, we also have a video walking through the UI and explaining the device in more detail.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ah8VaMuEJeA

If anyone wants to help, we are looking for a couple more beta testers to try out our software on their own Raspberry Pi hardware in the next couple weeks.

Thanks for your support and furthering software development in the Bitcoin community!

Taylor from myNode
submitted by mynodebtc to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Not Your Keys, Not Your Coins

Owning bitcoin is knowing a private key which can be used to spend a bitcoin UTXO.
If any other person knows this private key, they could spend the UTXO.
For this reason, you must keep your private keys secure, and secret.

Scams & Frauds

Scammers have been attempting to take bitcoin from uneducated users for years. One way to do this is to give an uneducated user a bitcoin wallet for which the scammer knows the private key.
The scammer can simply sit back and wait for the uneducated user to send bitcoin to this wallet, and at any time they can send all the bitcoin to their own address. The most malicious scammers may wait months or years before stealing the bitcoin, ensuring they steal as much as possible.

Ballet

Recently a kickstarter campaign has gone live for 'ballet', a product which purports to be a simple and secure way to hold bitcoin without any setup. This product is shipped with the private key & an address physically printed/engraved on the product.
Specifically there are 3 elements to the design;
  1. An encrypted private key printed on a sticker.
  2. A 'wallet passphrase' engraved on the product with a scratch-off sticker covering it.
  3. A public address printed on a sticker, stuck on top of the encrypted private key.
Anyone who can combine (1) & (2) can spend bitcoin sent to the address (3), be this person the owner of the product, the CEO of the company making this product, a malicious employee or an outside attacker.

Don't Trust - Verify

The claim made by the manufacturer is that that (1) & (2) are not permanently recorded by the company, and thus the company can't steal your bitcoin.
This is not a claim that you can verify.
It is not possible for you, the user, to watch every step of every process for every device and inspect the code running on every machine and thoroughly check every room for hidden cameras.
It is not possible for anyone to do this, because it would require complete constant pervasive surveillance.
Even if the company is not intentionally planning to steal from those buying these products, they cannot guarantee that a malicious employee or an outside attacker has not compromised their process.
The product is sold under the false pretense that securing your bitcoin is a technologically challenging process which requires technical expertise and identity checks. This is NOT TRUE.

The Solution

There are many bitcoin wallets which can be checked against malicious injection of code designed to steal your bitcoin. Software releases are done in such a way that you can download a specific version of a tool and check that the hash of the file matches that which you have confirmed to be secure. Because many of the wallets listed are used by thousands of users & developers there are lot's of 'eyes on the code', that is to say that many people are watching the code changes to ensure that there is no funny business.
It is true that some users blindly download bitcoin wallets, these users are exposed to the aforementioned risk of using a wallet which has an insecure private key. However it is possible for users to check a version of a piece of software, to combine their efforts and verify that a certain version of software is secure. To track the changes made to the software over time to give reassurances that the code is secure for their use.
For this reason it is inaccurate to liken the risk of 'balet' being insecure with the risk of a software wallet being secure. The former can NEVER be provably secure, whilst the latter can.
Furthermore, there are actual bitcoin hardware wallets which are designed to allow you, the user, to generate, secure and backup your bitcoin private keys in such a way that you don't need to trust the wallet manufacturer (my favorite is the ColdCard).

Archive of Text from Balet WEBSITE

  1. Using an offline computer, serial number, wallet passphrase, and intermediate code are generated in Ballet’s USA headquarters
  2. Serial number and intermediate code are then electronically transmitted to Ballet’s office in China.
  3. Afterwards, the BIP38 process is used to randomly generate an encrypted private key (EPK) using the intermediate code data.
The corresponding public key and coin addresses will be generated, along with a confirmation code, to be used for verification and additional checking afterwards. This encrypted private key is secure data, which is only stored once, on a hard disk drive.
In China, this two-layer QR code sticker is manufactured using an offline process in a secure printing facility
The secure data is never transmitted to any external computers or system. The secure data is transferred physically, on a hard disk drive. Right after the printing process, the secure data is then deleted, overwritten, and physically destroyed.
The secure two-layer QR code sticker will then be securely applied to the hardware wallets, without ever revealing the encrypted private keys.
Once finished, the partially assembled wallets are sent to the United States for final production. The confirmation codes are also electronically sent back to the United States. This is for further verification to ensure that the encrypted private keys and decryption wallet passphrase does match up with the generated cryptocurrency coin addresses.
The hardware wallets and QR code stickers are verified and double checked in the United States according to their corresponding serial numbers.
The matching decryption wallet passphrase and serial number will then be laser etched onto the wallets. A strip of tamper evident scratch-off material is then applied on the wallet, to cover the wallet passphrase.
submitted by 6102bitcoin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

HOW TO CREATE A QR CODE - [ INSTRUCTIONS 101] - YouTube Tutorial hack code block chain bitcoin private key 30/10/2017 How to Accept Bitcoin by Printing QR Code - YouTube QR Bitcoin Code Generator How to send and receive bitcoin in your block chain wallet

Don't use web-based QR code generators, especially not "bitcoin QR code generators" - they may replace your address with their own. This website claims to turn your addresseinto a QR code, but actually just outputs their own address no matter what you put in. Nice try, scammers. from Bitcoin Don't Create Technical Weaknesses. Most users should not store private key backups digitally ... A Bitcoin address that received value after the fork won’t be eligible for any forkcoins. Reward Ratio. Forkcoins are often awarded in direct proportion to the amount of bitcoin in each address (e.g. 1.582 forkcoins for 1.582 BTC) but this ratio can vary. For example, Bitcoin World awards 10,000 BTW for every 1 BTC. Transaction replay protection None Basic Attention Token Bitcoin Bitcoin Cash Cardano Dash Doge Ethereum Litecoin Monero Nano NEO OmiseGo Stellar Vechain XRP Zcash. Address . Payment URL. Key. Color; Corners; Padding; Frame; Text; Rotate; Size; HEX. R. G. B. Change the colors! 0. Adjust the corner radius. 30. Adjust the padding. Frame 1. Frame 2. Frame 3. Frame 4. Frame 5. Frame 6. Frame 7. Frame 8. Trigger callout ... A Bitcoin address, or simply address, is an identifier of 26-35 alphanumeric characters, beginning with the number 1, 3 or bc1 that represents a possible destination for a bitcoin payment. Students at their seats use coins to create combinations as well and record them on whiteboards, if desired. Famous Mii Characters & QR Codes for your Nintendo Wii U, Wii, 3DS, and Miitomo. Given an array of ... The bitcoin atm requires me to scan QR code from the screen on my android smartphone. If I understand this correctly, this QR code that should appear on my android btc wallet is the 30 symbol long address that is my digital wallet. I have Mycellium, Blockchain and "Bitcoin" android wallets but I dont know how to do it with any of them. Yesterday I tried it with Blockchain wallet but I failed ...

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HOW TO CREATE A QR CODE - [ INSTRUCTIONS 101] - YouTube

www.davidrobertson.info Help us by donating any leftover Bitcoin by using the QR Code or the address below: 1BPbSV6eVDkEox8j5SQqarBRB7dfume69m We also have a... If you want to someone to send you money to your Bitcoin account, Give them this address. you may donate to our network via Bitcoin as well :) Bitcoin addres... In this video I'll show you how to make a QR ( quick response ) code online quickly, easily and for free. These QR codes will never expire and you can use th... Create Payment Request Bitcoin QR code Best Investment Smart Passive Income . Loading... Unsubscribe from Best Investment Smart Passive Income? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed ... -To receive bitcoins from another person, simply click on the request option down on the right of the screen. Your wallet address and ur QR code will appear.

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